digital equipment corportation • maynard, massachusetts
ADDRESS  
USER I
SUPER I
KERNEL I
PROG PHY
USER D
SUPER D
KERNEL D
CONS PHY
POWER
LOCK
OFF
DATA  
DATA PATHS
µ ADRS FPP/CPU
BUS REGISTER
DISPLAY REGISTER
pdp11-45
ADRS ERR
RUN
PAUSE
MASTER
USER
SUPER
KERNEL
DATA

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

LOAD
ADRS

EXAM

CONT

ENABLE
HALT

S INST
S BUS

START

DEP

REG
EXAM

REG
DEP

console





PDP 11/45 Emulator - March 2020

This is a PDP 11/45 version of the PDP 11/70 emulator. Because a PDP 11/45 has less memory it is not able to run some of the software a PDP 11/70 can.

The PDP 11/45 was released in 1972 and is an older less powerful version of the PDP 11/70 which was released in 1975. It is the second implementation of the PDP 11 following on from the PDP 11/20, which had an odd coupling of a 16 address bit processor to an 18 address bit bus. Naturally then, the PDP 11/45 had to include some form of memory management!

The PDP 11/45 has the same processor as the PDP 11/70 but lacks 22 bit addressing, restricting it to 124KW of physical memory instead of 4MB. It also lacks unibus mapping and a number of the PDP 11/70's special control registers. But still it has three addressing modes (Kernel, Supervisor, and User) and implements split Instruction and Data addressing. Split I&D cause Instruction memory references based on the the use of the program counter to map seperately from general addressing. As a result a program can have 32768 words of instruction memory AND 32768 words of data. Some of the newer operating systems such as BSD require this capability to fit programs into memory. Sadly a PDP 11/45 can't run BSD because the system maximum memory limit of 124KW is not sufficient to load the entire operating system.

One wonders if these types of memory restrictions, which ultimately killed the PDP 11, influenced the design of Unix to be more modular. Perhaps leading to things like shell piping of data between small programs.

Note: The boot code in this emulator is a custom PDP 11 program running with it's own set of light patterns. It is initially loaded at address 140000 and has a LIGHTS command which operates by mapping and executing a WAIT instruction from a pattern of virtual addresses located in Supervisor mode. You can also use the BOOT command to start one of the guest operating systems listed below, or the ODT command to start a version of the Octal Debugging Tool.

If you wish to toggle in a simple light chaser to the front panel then here are some switch commands which can be used:


Address Data    Code        Switch commands

                            HALT, 001000, LOAD ADDRESS
001000  012700  mov #1,r0   012700, DEPOSIT
001002  000001              000001, DEPOSIT
001004  006100  rol r0      006100, DEPOSIT
001006  000005  reset       000005, DEPOSIT
001010  000775  br .-4      000775, DEPOSIT
                            001000, LOAD ADDRESS, ENABLE, START
To restart the initial boot code (if it has not been overwritten) use the switch commands:
HALT, 140000, LOAD ADDRESS, START

There are many PDP emulators out there and I have never seen what I consider to be a complete list. Some of the really interesting ones can be found by googling terms such as "vhdl pdp 11". However the gold standard seems to be SIMH at Trailing Edge . A different approach to Javascript PDP 11 emulation can be found at www.pcjs.org .

I believe that the first PDP 11 emulator would be SIM-11 written in FORTRAN before the first PDP 11/20 hardware was even built - see How the PDP-11 Was Born . There is more PDP 11 history at www.hampage.hu .

Of course if you want your own PDP 11/70 front panel you might consider a PiDP-11 .

Happy emulating!

Paul Nankervis

List of guest OS's:

Disk OS Comment
RK0 Unix V5 Boot using: unix then login as root
RK1 RT11 v4.0 The lightest/fastest OS here
RK2 RSTS V06C-03 Boot and login as 1,2 with password SYSTEM or as 11,70 using PDP
RK3 XXDP Diagnostic OS and utilities
RK4 RT-11 3B Distribution for RT-11 Version 3B
RK5 RT-11 V5.4F Distribution for RT-11 Version 5.4F
RL0 BSD 2.9 Boot using: rl(0,0)rlunix   CTRL/D to get to multiuser
RL2 RSTS/E v7.0 Option: <LF> Suboption: <LF> ... Login as 1,2 using SYSTEM or 11,70 using PDP
RL3 XXDP Larger version of diagnostics - including PDP 11/70 utilities
RP0 ULTRIX-11 V3.1 CTRL/D to enter multiuser mode. Login as root with no password
RP2 RSTS/E v9.6 Answer boot questions and login as 1,2 (password SYSTEM ) or 11,70 (no password)
RP3 RSX 11M v4.6 Starts logged in as 1,2 (password SYSTEM ) - user accounts 200,1 (no password) or 11,70 (password PDP )

Note: Disks are shown in approximately order size. The RK05 disks at the top are small and not too bad to use across a network. The RP06 disks at the bottom can be rather slow.

Youtube video 1

Youtube video 2

Example boot of Unix V5

BOOT> boot rk0
@unix

login: root
# cat /etc/passwd
root::0:1::/:
daemon::1:1::/bin:
bin::3:1::/bin:
# who
root    tty8 Mar 21 12:09
# chdir /usr/sys/ken
# pwd
../usr/sys/ken
# ls -al
total 121
drwxr-xr-x  2 bin       352 Nov 26 18:13 .
drwxr-xr-x  5 bin       384 Nov 26 18:13 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      3855 Nov 26 18:13 alloc.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      2159 Nov 26 18:13 clock.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      2662 Nov 26 18:13 fio.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      2941 Nov 26 18:13 iget.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      2674 Nov 26 18:13 main.c
...
# ls -al /usr/games
total 64
drwxr-xr-x  2 bin       144 Nov 26 18:13 .
drwxr-xr-x 14 bin       224 Nov 26 18:13 ..
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      1562 Nov 26 18:13 bj
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin     16268 Nov 26 18:13 chess
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      2468 Nov 26 18:13 cubic
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin       624 Nov 26 18:13 moo
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      2192 Nov 26 18:13 ttt
-rw-rw-rw-  1 bin       294 Nov 26 18:13 ttt.k
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      5386 Nov 26 18:13 wump
# ls -al /bin
total 339
drwxr-xr-x  2 bin       944 Nov 26 18:13 .
drwxr-xr-x  9 bin       160 Jan 29 16:14 ..
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      1514 Nov 26 18:13 ar
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      7308 Nov 26 18:13 as
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      6042 Nov 26 18:13 bas
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin       152 Nov 26 18:13 cat
-rwxr-xr-x  1 bin      5668 Nov 26 18:13 cc
....
# ls -al /usr/source/s2
total 281
drwxr-xr-x  2 bin       848 Jan  2 19:36 .
drwxr-xr-x  7 bin       112 Nov 26 18:13 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      4233 Nov 26 18:13 mail.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin       588 Nov 26 18:13 mesg.s
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      1088 Nov 26 18:13 mkdir.s
-rw-r--r--  1 bin      6922 Nov 26 18:13 mkfs.c
-rw-r--r--  1 bin       563 Nov 26 18:13 mknod.c
...
# chdir /
# cal 10 1981
Oct 1981
S  M Tu  W Th  F  S
1  2  3
4  5  6  7  8  9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31
# bas
print sqr(2)
1.414213562
10 print "Calculating e"
20 p = 20
30 k = 1
40 e = 0
50 for x=1 p
60 e = e + 1/k
70 k = k * x
80 next x
90 print "e=" e " (" exp(1) ")"
run
Calculating e
e=2.718281828 (2.718281828)
CTRL/D
# cat > hello.c
main(argc, argv)
char **argv;
{
printf("Hello world\n");
}
CTRL/D
# cc hello.c
# a.out
Hello world
# cat > pi.f
c PI via Nilakantha series: 3 + 4/(2*3*4) - 4/(4*5*6) + 4/(6*7*8) ...
      double precision pi, n, d
      pi = 3.0
      n = 4.0
      d = 2.0
      do 25 i=1,3000
        pi = pi + n / (d * (d + 1.0) * (d + 2.0))
        d = d + 2.0
        n = -n
 25     continue
      write(6,70) pi
 70   format('PI is approximately ', d2.16)
      end
CTRL/D
# fc pi.f
# a.out
PI is approximately 0.3141592653580503d+01
#

Example boot of RT11 v4.0

BOOT> boot rk1
RT-11SJ  V04.00C

.D 56=5015

.TYPE V4USER.TXT
Welcome to RT-11 Version 4. RT-11 V04 provides new hardware support
and some major enhancements over Version 3B.

Please use the HELP command;  it describes the new options in many
of the utilities.

If you are using a terminal that requires fill characters,
modify location 56 with a Deposit command before proceeding with
system installation. LA36 DECwriter II and VT52 DECscope terminals
do NOT require such modification.

.D 56=0

.DIR

SWAP  .SYS    25  01-Feb-82      RT11BL.SYS    65  01-Feb-82
RT11SJ.SYS    67  01-Feb-82      RT11FB.SYS    80  01-Feb-82
...
DISMT2.COM     8  01-Feb-82      DUNGEO.COM     1  07-Jun-86
DSAVE .DAT    10  07-Jun-86      ADVENT.DOC     4  20-Jul-85
DUNGEO.SAV   216  07-Jun-86      DINDX .DAT    20  07-Jun-86
DTEXT .DAT   383  07-Jun-86      ADVENT.SAV    93  20-Jul-85
ADVENT.VAR    22  20-Jul-85      ADVTXT.TXT   125  20-Jul-85
ODT11 .MAC    61  31-Oct-74      ANIMAL.SAV    22  02-Oct-85
BLKJAK.SAV    20  02-Nov-85      FORTH .MAC   146
RTLEM .MAC   363  06-Sep-73      BOOT  .MAC    26  24-Mar-75
 118 Files, 3392 Blocks
 1370 Free blocks

.R DUNGEO
Welcome to Dungeon.                     This version created 10-AUG-78.
You are in an open field west of a big white house with a boarded
front door.
There is a small mailbox here.
>OPEN MAILBOX
Opening the mailbox reveals:
  A leaflet.
>READ LEAFLET
Taken.
                    Welcome to Dungeon!

   Dungeon is a game of adventure, danger, and low cunning.  In it
you will explore some of the most amazing territory ever seen by mortal
man.  Hardened adventurers have run screaming from the terrors contained
within.

   In Dungeon, the intrepid explorer delves into the forgotten secrets
of a lost labyrinth deep in the bowels of the earth, searching for
vast treasures long hidden from prying eyes, treasures guarded by
fearsome monsters and diabolical traps!

   No DECsystem should be without one!

   Dungeon was created at the Programming Technology Division of the MIT
Laboratory for Computer Science by Tim Anderson, Marc Blank, Bruce
Daniels, and Dave Lebling.  It was inspired by the Adventure game of
Crowther and Woods, and the Dungeons and Dragons game of Gygax
and Arneson.  The original version was written in MDL (alias MUDDLE).
The current version was translated from MDL into FORTRAN IV by
a somewhat paranoid DEC engineer who prefers to remain anonymous.

   On-line information may be obtained with the commands HELP and INFO.
>QUIT
Your score would be   0 [total of 560 points], in    1 move.
This gives you the rank of beginner.
Do you wish to leave the game?
Y

.MAC RTLEM
ERRORS DETECTED:  0
.LINK RTLEM
.RUN RTLEM
... attempt to land the lunar module using the mouse as a light pen - goodluck!

Example boot of RSTS V06C-03

BOOT> boot rk2

RSTS V06C-03 Vixen (DK2)

Option:

You currently have: JOB MAX = 31, SWAP MAX = 28K.

You currently have crash dump disabled.

DD-MMM-YY? 31-OCT-76
12:00 PM? 9:03
INIT    V06C-03 RSTS V06C-03 Vixen

Command File Name?
DETACHING...

I11/70
Password: PDP

Ready

DIR
 Name .Ext  Size    Prot   Date       SY:[11,70]
ACEY  .BAS     5   < 60> 31-Oct-76
TREK  .BAS    16   < 60> 31-Oct-76
TREK  .DOC     9   < 60> 31-Oct-76
ANIMAL.BAS     5   < 60> 31-Oct-76
STRTRK.BAS    27   < 60> 31-Mar-81
STRTR1.BAS     9   < 60> 31-Mar-81
ADVENT.DOC     4   < 60> 20-Jul-85
ADVENT.SAV    93   <124> 20-Jul-85
ADVENT.VAR    22   < 60> 20-Jul-85
ADVTXT.TXT   125   < 60> 20-Jul-85
SYSMAC.SML    42   < 60> 13-Mar-77
HELLO .MAC     1   < 60> 13-Mar-77
PRIME .BAS     1   < 60> 24-Mar-76
PI    .BAS     1   < 60> 24-Mar-76
BOOT  .MAC    26   < 60> 01-Jan-76

Total of 386 blocks in 15 files in SY:[11,70]

Ready

RUN PI
3.14159265358979

Ready

RUN ADVENT

WELCOME TO ADVENTURE!!  WOULD YOU LIKE INSTRUCTIONS?

NO
YOU ARE STANDING AT THE END OF A ROAD BEFORE A SMALL BRICK BUILDING.
AROUND YOU IS A FOREST.  A SMALL STREAM FLOWS OUT OF THE BUILDING AND
DOWN A GULLY.

E
YOU ARE INSIDE A BUILDING, A WELL HOUSE FOR A LARGE SPRING.

THERE ARE SOME KEYS ON THE GROUND HERE.

THERE IS A SHINY BRASS LAMP NEARBY.

THERE IS FOOD HERE.

THERE IS A BOTTLE OF WATER HERE.

GET FOOD
OK

QUIT
DO YOU REALLY WANT TO QUIT NOW?

Y
OK
YOU SCORED  32 OUT OF A POSSIBLE 350, USING    3 TURNS.
YOU ARE OBVIOUSLY A RANK AMATEUR.  BETTER LUCK NEXT TIME.
TO ACHIEVE THE NEXT HIGHER RATING, YOU NEED  4 MORE POINTS.

Ready

RUN ACEY
                          ACEY DUCEY CARD GAME
               CREATIVE COMPUTING  MORRISTOWN, NEW JERSEY


ACEY-DUCEY IS PLAYED IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER
THE DEALER (COMPUTER) DEALS TWO CARDS FACE UP
YOU HAVE AN OPTION TO BET OR NOT BET DEPENDING
ON WHETHER OR NOT YOU FEEL THE CARD WILL HAVE
A VALUE BETWEEN THE FIRST TWO.
IF YOU DO NOT WANT TO BET, INPUT A 0
YOU NOW HAVE 100 DOLLARS.

HERE ARE YOUR NEXT TWO CARDS:
 4
 5

WHAT IS YOUR BET? 100
 9
SORRY, YOU LOSE

SORRY, FRIEND, BUT YOU BLEW YOUR WAD.

TRY AGAIN (YES OR NO)? NO

O.K., HOPE YOU HAD FUN!

Ready

SYSTAT

RSTS V06C-03 Vixen status at 31-Oct-76, 09:05 AM Up: 2:34

Job    Who    Where    What    Size    State    Run-Time   RTS
 1    [OPR]   Det     ERRCPY    5K     SR            5.0  BASIC
 2    [SELF]  KB0     SYSTAT    8K     RN Lck        2.1  BASIC

Busy Devices: None

Disk Structure:
Disk    Open    Free    Cluster Errors  Name    Comments
DK2       3     324        1      0     VIXEN   Pub, DLW

Small   Large   Jobs    Hung TTY's      Errors
380       1      2/2        0              0

Run-Time Systems:
 Name   Ext       Size  Users   Comments
BASIC   BAC     16(16)K   2     Perm, Addr:26, KBM, CSZ
RSX     TSK      2(28)K   0     Non-Res, KBM
RT11    SAV      4(28)K   0     Temp, Addr:66, KBM, CSZ, EMT:255
RMS11   TSK      4(28)K   0     Non-Res

Message Receivers:
 Name   Job     Msgs    Max     Senders
ERRLOG   1       0      40      Priv

Ready

BYE/Y
Saved all disk files; 388 blocks in use, 112 free
Job 2 User 11,70 logged off KB0 at 31-Oct-76 09:05 AM
System RSTS V06C-03 Vixen
Run time was 2.7 seconds
Elapsed time was 2 minutes
Good morning

Example boot of XXDP

BOOT> boot rk3

CHMDKB1 XXDP+ DK MONITOR
BOOTED VIA UNIT 3
28K UNIBUS SYSTEM

ENTER DATE (DD-MMM-YY):

RESTART ADDR: 152010
THIS IS XXDP+.  TYPE "H" OR "H/L" FOR HELP.

.R KFPA??
KFPAD0.BIC

CKFPAD0 FP11F FLTG PNT PRT A
EOP MSGS WILL PRINT EVERY 4 PASSES (15 SECONDS)
HIT ANY KEY TO DISABLE/ENABLE EOP MESSAGES

END PASS # 4

END PASS # 10

END PASS # 14
...

Example boot of RSTS 4B-17

BOOT> boot tm0

ROLLIN V07

#DK:<MT:VIXEN/REW
END-OF-FILE DURING READ, TYPE
M TO MOUNT ANOTHER REEL, OR K TO KILL REQUEST: k

#/BO:DK:

RSTS V04B-17 VIXEN

OPTION? ST
DD-MON-YY? 31-OCT-74
HH:MM? 08:55
VIXEN  - SYSTEM PACK MOUNTED
ENABLE CRASH DUMP? N
CHAIN "INIT"
CATASTROPHIC ERROR
PROGRAM LOST-SORRY
I/O CHANNEL NOT OPEN

Ready

SYSTEM INITIALIZATION PROGRAM

END OF FILE ON DEVICE - INIT ASSUMED COMPLETE

Ready

CAT
LOGIN .BAS       7       60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGIN .BAC       15      60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGOUT.BAS       7       60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGOUT.BAC       15      60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
PIP   .BAS       18      60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
PIP   .BAC       23      40     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
SYSTAT.BAS       12      60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
...

Ready

BYE
CONFIRM: Y
SAVED ALL DISK FILES; 782 BLOCKS IN USE
JOB 1 USER 1,2 LOGGED OFF KB0 AT 31-Oct-74 08:55 AM
SYSTEM RSTS V04B-17 VIXEN
RUN TIME WAS .1 SECONDS
ELAPSED TIME WAS 10 SECONDS
GOOD MORNING

HELLO

RSTS V04B-17 VIXEN  JOB 1  KB0  31-Oct-74  08:55 AM
#11,70
PASSWORD: PDP
RSTS V4B-17 IS NOW AVAILABLE...

NEW OR OLD--OLD
Old file name--PI

Ready

LIST
PI      08:55 AM        31-Oct-74
10 REM CALCULATE PI
20 P = 0
30 P1 = 1
40 FOR K%=0% TO 10%
50 P = P + 1.0/P1 * (4.0/(8%*K% + 1%) - 2.0/(8%*K% + 4%) - 1.0/(8%*K% +
5%) - 1.0/(8%*K% + 6%))
60 P1 = P1 * 16.0
70 NEXT K%
80 PRINT USING "#.##############",P
99 END

Ready

RUN
PI      08:55 AM        31-Oct-74
3.14159265358979

Ready

RUN $TTYSET
'TTYSET' TERMINAL CHARACTERISTICS PROGRAM
? LC
? ^Z

Ready

RUN $UTILTY
PROTECTION VIOLATION

Ready

CAT $
LOGIN .BAS       7       60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGIN .BAC       15      60     31-Oct-74 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGOUT.BAS       7       60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
LOGOUT.BAC       15      60     31-Oct-74 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
PIP   .BAS       18      60     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
PIP   .BAC       23      40     31-Oct-71 31-Oct-71 06:42 AM
...
ODT   .BAC       19      40     PROTECTION VIOLATION

Ready

RUN $SYSTAT
OUTPUT STATUS TO?

RSTS V04B-17 VIXEN STATUS ON 31-Oct-74 AT 08:56 AM UP: 1:37

JOB    WHO      WHERE    WHAT   SIZE    STATE     RUN-TIME
 1    11,70      KB0    SYSTAT   6K     RN             0.0

BUSY DEVICES: NONE

DISK STRUCTURE:
DISK    OPEN     FREE   CLUSTER ERRORS  COMMENTS
DK0      0       3184     1       0     PUBLIC

SMALL  LARGE   ERRORS  HUNG TTY'S
 68     0      0        0

Ready

RUN PRIME
 1             2             3             5             7
 11            13            17            19            23
 29            31            37            41            43
 ...
CPU TIME       2.3           SECONDS

Ready

CAT
PRIME .BAS       1       60     31-Oct-74 31-Oct-71 06:43 AM
PI    .BAS       1       60     31-Oct-74 31-Oct-71 06:43 AM
TEMP01.TMP       1       60     31-Oct-74 31-Oct-74 08:55 AM

Ready

Example boot of BSD 2.9

BOOT> boot rl0
:boot

45Boot
: rl(0,0)rlunix

Berkeley UNIX (Rev. 2.9.1) Sun Nov 20 14:55:50 PST 1983
mem = 135872
xp2: drive type 20 unrecognized
xp3: drive type 20 unrecognized

CONFIGURE SYSTEM:
xp 0 csr 176700 vector 254 attached
rk 0 csr 177400 vector 220 attached
hk ? csr 177440 vector 210 skipped:  No CSR
rl 0 csr 174400 vector 160 attached
rp ? csr 176700 vector 254 interrupt vector already in use
ht 0 csr 172440 vector 224 skipped:  No CSR
tm 0 csr 172520 vector 224 attached
ts 0 csr 172520 vector 224 interrupt vector already in use
dh ? csr 160020 vector 370 skipped:  No CSR
dm ? csr 170500 vector 360 skipped:  No autoconfig routines
dz ? csr 160110 vector 320 skipped:  No CSR
dz ? csr 160110 vector 320 skipped:  No CSR
dn 0 csr 175200 vector 300 skipped:  No autoconfig routines
vp ? csr 177500 vector 174 skipped:  No autoconfig routines
lp 0 csr 177514 vector 200 attached
Erase=^?, kill=^U, intr=^C
# ls -al
total 546
drwxr-xr-x11 root     daemon       512 Mar  7 09:00 .
drwxr-xr-x11 root     daemon       512 Mar  7 09:00 ..
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root     daemon       164 Sep 29 09:20 .cshrc
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root     daemon       266 Mar  7 08:43 .login
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root     superuse       2 Jul 26 16:00 .msgsrc
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root     daemon       116 Mar 30 00:59 .profile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root     superuse      56 Nov 20 16:03 2.9stamp
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root     superuse     450 Mar 30 00:50 READ_ME
drwxrwxr-x 2 bin      bin         1632 Nov 20 16:04 bin
-rwxrwxr-x 1 root     superuse   23572 Mar  7 09:05 boot
drwxrwxr-x 2 root     superuse    1424 Nov 20 18:11 dev
drwxr-xr-x 2 root     superuse     768 Nov 20 17:46 etc
....
# cat /etc/passwd
root::0:2:The Man:/:/bin/csh
toor::0:2:The Man:/:
daemon:***:1:1:The devil himself:/:
sys:***:2:1::/:
bin:***:3:1::/:
uucp::4:1:UNIX-to-UNIX Copy:/usr/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
notes:***:5:1:Notesfiles maintainer:/usr/spool/notes:
anon:***:6:1:Notesfiles anonymous user:/usr/spool/notes:
news:***:7:1:News maintainer:/usr/spool/news:
wnj:ZDjXDBwXle2gc:8:2:Bill Joy,457E,7780:/a/guest/wnj:/bin/csh
dmr:AiInt5qKdjmHs:9:2:Dennis Ritchie:/a/guest/dmr:
ken:sq5UDrPlKj1nA:10:2:& Thompson:/a/guest/ken:
mike:KnKNwMkyCt8ZI:11:2:mike karels:/a/guest/mike:/bin/csh
carl:S2KiTfS3pH3kg:12:2:& Smith,508-21E,6258:/a/guest/carl:/bin/csh
joshua::999:2:&:/usr/games:/usr/games/wargames
# CTRL/D
 Wed Dec 31 16:03:18 PST 1969
/etc/fstab: No such file or directory
/usr/sys: No such file or directory
init: /dev/tty02: cannot open
init: /dev/tty01: cannot open
...


Berkeley Unix 2.9BSD

:login: root

Welcome to the 2.9BSD (Berkeley) UNIX system.

tty: Command not found.

# ls -al /bin
total 1182
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         8692 Dec 31 16:59 #
drwxrwxr-x 2 bin      bin         1632 Nov 20 16:04 .
drwxr-xr-x11 root     daemon       512 Mar  7 09:00 ..
-rwxrwxr-x 2 bin      bin         2917 Dec 31 16:59 [
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin        30340 Mar 24 08:27 adb
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         9844 Dec 31 16:58 ar
-rwxrwxr-t 1 bin      bin         5626 Sep 30 17:39 as
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         4508 Jan 18 08:22 cat
-rwxrwxr-t 1 bin      bin         7314 Oct  9 04:04 cc
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         5096 Dec 31 16:59 chgrp
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         3364 Dec 31 16:59 chmod
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin        20096 Sep 27 00:23 chown
-rwxrwxr-x 1 bin      bin         3500 Dec 31 16:59 clri
...

Example boot of RSTS/E v7.0

BOOT> boot rl2

RSTS V7.0-07 Vixen (DL2)


Option: <LF>

You currently have: JOB MAX = 63, SWAP MAX = 31K.

Default memory allocation table specifies nonexistent memory.
Table will be reset by RSTS.

  Memory allocation table:

     0K: 00000000 - 00207777 (  34K) : EXEC
    34K: 00210000 - 00307777 (  16K) : RTS (BASIC)
    50K: 00310000 - 00757777 (  74K) : USER
   124K: 00760000 - End              : NXM


  Table suboption? <LF>

You currently have crash dump disabled.

DD-MMM-YY? 31-OCT-81
12:00 PM? 12:00
INIT    V7.0-07 RSTS V7.0-07 Vixen

Command File Name?
DETACHING...
...


HELLO 1/2
Password:
Job 1 is detached under this account
Job number to attach to?
1 other user is logged in under this account

Ready

PRINT "HELLO WORLD",PI*4
HELLO WORLD    12.5664

Ready

DIR
 Name .Ext    Size   Prot    Date       SY:[1,2]
MINCOP.BAS      15   < 60> 24-Sep-79
PIP   .SAV      50   <232> 23-Sep-79
PIPSAV.TXT      29   < 40> 23-Sep-79
ONLPAT.SAV      59   <104> 23-Sep-79
MACRO .SAV      57   <104> 23-Sep-79
CREF  .SAV       8   <104> 23-Sep-79
LINK  .SAV      40   <104> 23-Sep-79
...

Total of 5196 blocks in 149 files in SY:[1,2]


Ready

SYSTAT

RSTS V7.0-07 Vixen status at 31-Oct-81, 12:01 PM Up: 1:07

Job    Who    Where    What    Size    State    Run-Time  Pri/RB   RTS
 1    [SELF]  Det     ERRCPY   5/31K   SR            9.7    0/6   BASIC
 2    [SELF]  KB0     SYSTAT  11/31K   RN Lck        5.8   -8/6   BASIC

Busy Devices: None

Disk Structure:
Disk    Open    Free    Cluster Errors  Name    Comments
DL2       3     2500       1      0     VIXEN   Pub, DLW

Small   Large   Jobs    Hung TTY's      Errors
494       1      2/2        0              0

Run-Time Systems:
 Name   Ext       Size  Users   Comments
BASIC   BAC     16(16)K   2     Perm, Addr:34, KBM, CSZ
RT11    SAV      4(28)K   0     Non-Res, KBM, CSZ, EMT:255
RSX     TSK      3(28)K   0     Non-Res, KBM
TECO    TEC      8(24)K   0     Non-Res

Resident Libraries: None

Message Receivers:
 Name   Job     Msgs    Max     Senders
ERRLOG   1       0      40      Priv

Ready

BYE
Confirm: Y
Saved all disk files; 5257 blocks in use
Job 2 User 1,2 logged off KB0 at 31-Oct-81 12:01 PM
1 other user still logged in under this account
System RSTS V7.0-07 Vixen
Run time was 6.5 seconds
Elapsed time was 1 minute
Good afternoon



Example boot of XXDP

BOOT> boot rl3

CHMDLD0 XXDP+ DL MONITOR
BOOTED VIA UNIT 3
28K UNIBUS SYSTEM

ENTER DATE (DD-MMM-YY):

RESTART ADDR: 152010
THIS IS XXDP+.  TYPE "H" OR "H/L" FOR HELP.

.R FFPC??
FFPCB0.BIC

CFFPCB0 11/34 FFP DIAG PRT3

END PASS #     1  TOTAL ERRORS SINCE LAST REPORT      0

END PASS #     2  TOTAL ERRORS SINCE LAST REPORT      0

END PASS #     3  TOTAL ERRORS SINCE LAST REPORT      0

END PASS #     4  TOTAL ERRORS SINCE LAST REPORT      0

END PASS #     5  TOTAL ERRORS SINCE LAST REPORT      0
...

Example boot of ULTRIX-11 System V3.1

BOOT> boot rp0

Sizing Memory...

Boot: hp(0,0)unix    (CTRL/C will abort auto-boot)

Load device (? for help, <RETURN> if none) < ht tm ts tk rx rl rc > ?

hp(0,0)unix: 14784+17024+8192+8000+8064+8000+8064+8128+8000+7808+7936+7936+7680+7360+1344

ULTRIX-11 Kernel V3.1

realmem = 253952
buffers = 25600
clists  = 1600
usermem = 94784
maxumem = 94784
erase = delete, kill = ^U, intr = ^C
# CTRL/D

Restricted rights:

        Use, duplication, or disclosure is subject
        to restrictions stated in your contract with
        Digital Equipment Corporation.

*UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Mounted /dev/hp01 on /usr
Mounted /dev/hp04 on /user1

Sat Oct 31 12:06:37 GMT-0:00 1981

ERROR LOG has - 1 of 200 blocks used


ULTRIX-11 System V3.1 (vixen)

login: root

Welcome to the ULTRIX-11 System

erase = delete, kill = ^U, intr = ^C
vixen# uname -a
ULTRIX-11 vixen 3 0 PDP-11/45
vixen# ps -xl

   F S UID   PID  PPID CPU PRI NICE   ADDR  SZ  WCHAN TTY TIME CMD
   3 S   0     0     0 207   0   20   3756   4  73326 ?   0:28 swapper
   1 S   0     1     0   0  30   20   4770  13 114226 ?   0:00 /etc/init
1101 S   0     2     1   0   5    0   6162  22 112272 ?   0:00 /etc/elc
   0 S   0    41     1   0  30   20    109  16 114352 co  0:01 -sh
   1 R   0    49    41  22  51   20   5341  28        co  0:00 ps -xl
 201 S   0    33     1   0  40   20   5251   7 140000 ?   0:00 /etc/update
 201 S   0    37     1   0  40   20   7017  13 140000 ?   0:00 /etc/cron
vixen# w
 12:07pm  up 1 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.46, 0.11, 0.04
User     tty       login@  idle   JCPU   PCPU  what
root     console  12:06pm            1      1  w
vixen# mount
hp01 on /usr
hp04 on /user1
vixen# df
Filesystem    total    kbytes  kbytes  percent
   node       kbytes    used    free   used    Mounted on
/dev/hp00       4606    3077    1529    67%    /
/dev/hp01       9629    3594    6035    37%    /usr
/dev/hp04     148244       2  148242     0%    /user1
vixen# set
HOME=/
IFS=

PATH=:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:/etc
PS1=vixen#
PS2=>
SHELL=/bin/sh
TERM=dw3
TZ=GMT0
USER=root
vixen# cat .profile
PS1=`hostname`'# '
echo "erase = delete, kill = ^U, intr = ^C"
if test `tty` = /dev/console
then
        stty dec prterase
else
        stty crt tabs
fi
PATH=:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:/etc
export PATH
vixen# ls /etc
accton       fpsim        init         msf          protocols    termcap
arp          fsdb         ipatch       mtab         rawfs        tss
catman       fstab        labelit      networks     rc           ttys
cron         getty        log          newfs        rdate        ttytype
cshprofile   gettytab     lpdrestart   nu           remote       tzname
dcopy        group        lpset        nu.cf        route        umount
ddate        hosts        mkfs         nulib        rx2fmt       update
dmesg        hosts.equiv  mknod        passwd       services     utmp
elc          ifconfig     motd         printcap     syslog.conf  vipw
eli          inetd.conf   mount        profile      syslog.pid   volcopy
vixen#

Example boot of RSX 11M 4.6

BOOT> boot rp3


  RSX-11M V4.6 BL56   124.K MAPPED
>RED DB3:=SY:
>RED DB3:=LB:
>MOU DB3:RSXM56
>@DB3:[1,2]STARTUP
>* PLEASE ENTER TIME AND DATE (HR:MN DD-MMM-YY) [S]:
>TIM
00:00:14 29-APR-74
>* ENTER LINE WIDTH OF THIS TERMINAL [D D:132.]:
>SET /BUF=TI:132.
>ACS SY:/BLKS=1024.
>;
>; This system startup command file (LB:[1,2]STARTUP.CMD) contains a
>; template of commands to initialize the queue print spooler and queue
>; LP0:, initialize the error logger, initialize the DCL CLI, and install
>; the RMS Library and Utilities.  As is these commands are commented out
>; and are not executed.  To include these commands as part of the
>; startup procedure, edit the file to remove the period and semi-colon
>; (.;) comment delimiter from the beginning of each line.  These
>; commands may be useful for initializing the various facilities for
>; your installation or else they may provide a model with which to
>; tailor initialization commands for your particular installation.
>;
>ELI /LOG
00:00:16  ERRLOG -- Error Logging initialized
>CLI /INIT=DCL/TASK=...DCL
>INS LB:[1,54]PIP.TSK
>INS LB:[1,54]EDT.TSK
>INS LB:[1,54]TKB.TSK
>INS LB:[1,54]MAC.TSK
>INS LB:[1,54]BRU.TSK
>@ <EOF>
>HELP

        Help is available for many RSX-11M commands and utilities.

        For help in logging into the system, type HELP HELLO or HELP
        LOGIN.  You'll need a user-ID and password to log in.  Ask your
        system manager.

        RSX-11M systems have two major command languages or CLIs:  MCR
        and DCL.  Once you log in, your terminal is set to either
        MCR or DCL.  (All terminals are set to MCR prior to logging in.)

        The general forms of the HELP command are:

                >HELP[/cli] topic [subtopic[s]]

                >HELP commandname [switch]

        Once you are logged in, you need not include the name of the CLI
        to which your terminal is set.

        For information on what further help is available, type
        HELP[/MCR] LIST (brackets indicate an optional command line
        entry) or HELP/DCL.  For a listing of help available on other
        topics, type HELP[/MCR] MORE or HELP/DCL MORE.  You need not
        log in to get help.

>BYE
Have a nice day
29-APR-74 00:00 TT0:  logged off VIXEN
>

Software Sources

Most of the software running in this emulator has been sourced from archives such as ftp://ftp.trailing-edge.com/pub/, https://www.tuhs.org/ or http://bitsavers.org/bits/DEC/pdp11/ which are fantastic resources for historical software. However a lot of PDP 11 software has suffered tape corruption or has been simply lost over the years. If you know of other archives or have access to other software distributions I would love to hear from you!

If you are looking for PDP 11 documentation a great resource is http://bitsavers.org/pdf/dec/pdp11/

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